Undifferentiated sarcoma, not otherwise specified. Previous exposure to ionizing radiation such as prior radiation therapy is one such risk factor.
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Previous exposure to ionizing radiation is one such risk factor. Mechanisms[ edit ] The mechanisms by which healthy cells transform into cancer cells are described in detail elsewhere see Cancer main page; Carcinogenesis main page. The precise molecular changes that result in sarcoma are not always known, but certain types of sarcomas are associated with particular genetic mutations. The recognition that many sarcomas are sensitive to chemotherapy has dramatically improved the survival of patients.
The Szarkóma rák norsk Cancer Society ACS also publishes guidelines recommending preventive screening for certain types of common cancers. Adjuvant radiotherapy may also be used after surgical excision for liposarcoma.
Expression of receptor B7-H3 provides a promising target for new immunotherapeutic strategies.
In childhood sarcomas, the cytotoxic agent cyclophosphamide is widely used and has shown good anti-tumour efficacy. However, high doses of chemotherapy szarkóma rák norsk the production of blood cells in the bone marrow and can be harmful.
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Factors that affect prognosis[ edit ] The AJCC has identified several factors that affect prognosis of bone sarcomas:  Size of the tumor: larger tumors tend to have a worse prognosis compared to smaller tumors.
Spread of tumor to surrounding tissues: tumors that have spread locally to surrounding tissues tend to have a worse prognosis compared to tumors that have not spread beyond their place of origin. Stage and presence of metastases: tumors that have spread "metastasized" to the lymph nodes which is rare for bone sarcomas or other organs or tissues for example, to the lungs have a worse prognosis compared to tumors that have not metastasized.
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Tumor grade: higher grade tumors grades 2 and 3 tend to have a worse prognosis compared to low grade grade 1 tumors. Skeletal location: tumors originating in the spine or pelvic bones tend to have a worse prognosis compared to tumors originating in arm or leg bones.
For soft tissue sarcomas other than GISTs, factors that affect prognosis include:  Stage: as with bone sarcomas, tumors that have metastasized have a worse prognosis compared to tumors that have not metastasized. For GISTs, the key factor that affects prognosis is:  Mitotic rate: mitotic rate refers to the fraction of cells that are actively dividing within the tumor; GISTs that have a high mitotic rate have a worse prognosis compared to GISTs that have a low mitotic rate.